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Transit-Oriented Development Resources

Photo of Transit Oriented DevelopmentPlease review the links and resources in each panel below based on topic.

 

 

 

 

 

Sustainability / Livability


Research Result Digest 294: TOD: Developing a Strategy to Measure Success
This digest identifies indicators for measuring the impacts and benefits of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). These indicators include transit ridership, density, quality of streetscape, quantity of mixed-use structures, pedestrian activity and safety, increase in property value and tax revenue, public perception, number of mode connections at the transit station, and parking. This digest reviews indicators used in previous studies and makes suggestions for monitoring benefits and outcomes to fully evaluate the impact of TOD.

National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), February 2005
Renne, John L. and Wells, Jan S.
Number of pages: 32

Study Finds Mixed-Use Areas Safer Than Commercial Only
This article features a study that found that “neighborhoods experiencing a change in zoning, typically to add residences to a commercial area, saw a 7 percent drop in crime thanks mostly to a decline in automobile theft and break-ins.” After examining eight high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles over time, researchers found that commercial-only areas had the highest crime rates when compared to similar blocks including residential uses.

Urban Land Institute (ULI), March 18, 2013
Badger, Emily.
Number of pages: 2 

TOD 205: Families and Transit-Oriented Development – Creating Complete Communities for All
This planning manual illustrates the significance of planning for TOD that serves families for creating complete communities, and steps to achieve such integrated planning. The first half of the manual lays out the why – families are an important market segment that can benefit from locating in transit-rich locations with a mix of housing, retail, and other uses. Next, the manual describes the ten core connections between TOD and families, and then delves into seven action-oriented steps to support family-friendly complete communities served by high-quality educational facilities.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD) and Center for Cities & Schools, June 2012
Number of pages: 28

Transit Oriented Development and The Potential for VMT-related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Growth Reduction
This study examines the greenhouse gas reduction potential of TOD by investigating how household vehicle travel affects urban form and access to transit. The study examines the real-world potential to use transit and TOD as an emissions reduction strategy in three different future development scenarios for the Chicago metropolitan area. The study concludes that a household’s VMT can be reduced by living in a location efficient neighborhood, with compact development within half a mile of a transit stop.  

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), March 2010
Haas, Peter; Miknaitis, Gajus; Cooper, Harley; Young, Linda; Benedict, Albert.
Number of pages: 64

 

Planning and Development


Downtowns, Greenfields and Places In Between – Promoting Development near Transit

This report examines the opportunities and challenges involved in promoting TOD in different types of neighborhoods, and the strategies that may be appropriate to catalyze TOD depending on the neighborhood context. By examining development patterns and public investment strategies through the lens of “development context” or “neighborhood type,” this report presents the actual, on-the-ground conditions within which TOD planning and implementation decisions are made.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), May 2013
Fogarty, Nadine; Srivastava, Sujata; Gehrke, Amanda; Nemirow, Alison; Austin, Mason. 
Number of pages: 55

Higher-Density Development: Myth and Fact
This publication provides facts to dispel many myths surrounding higher density development that overestimates its impact and underestimates its value, to create a new understanding of density. Elected officials, community leaders, and citizens can use this publication to support well-designed and well-planned development density that creates livable communities. With the anticipated population growth and continuing demographic and lifestyle changes, creating communities with a mix of densities, housing types, and land uses will be both necessary and desirable.

ULI-the Urban Land Institute, 2005
Haughey, Richard M.
Number of pages: 38

Medford West Main Street Transit Oriented Development Principles
This presentation contains basic principles and benefits of TOD, and provides examples of TOD best practices and design elements.

OTAK Inc., December 2006
Number of pages: 38

Performance-Based Transit-Oriented Development Typology Guidebook
The Guidebook categorizes TOD as a community development model that when successfully implemented can produce significant economic, environmental, and social benefits for people, neighborhoods, cities, and regions. The guidebook provides analytical tools that can provide all TOD stakeholders with the ability to make fully informed decisions. TOD policy makers and developers can benefit from using a performance-based typology presented in the guidebook that helps to identify different site conditions that influence the form of TOD.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), December 2010
Number of pages: 91

Protecting and Preserving Rail Corridors Against Encroachment of Incompatible Uses
This report provides an overview of encroachment and the elements that contribute to potentially incompatible development along rail corridors. The report reviews the existing legal tools within Texas for corridor preservation and provides recommendations for new legislation. The report reviews the state of practice of rail corridor planning and preservation with mitigation against encroachment both in Texas and in selected other states around the country. The report focuses on rail corridor planning for both freight and passenger services. Finally, the report provides a review of costs associated to address encroachment by planning, preservation, collaboration, or mitigation.

Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin, January 2008
Loftus-Otway, Walton, Blais, and Hutson. 
Number of pages: 194

Saint Paul Transit-Oriented Development Guidebook for the Central Corridor
This document contains TOD guidelines for developing the Central Corridor area in the City of St. Paul, MN. This document features strategies for businesses and property owners, policy guidelines for TOD, and design standards for TOD.

Central Corridor Design Center, City of Saint Paul and Saint Paul Riverfront Corporation, October 2011
Number of pages: 84

TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects
This TCRP Report provides the past and current trends in TOD in the US. The report covers benefits and challenges of TOD planning, supported by case studies (Boston, New Jersey, Washington DC, Miami, Chicago, Dallas, Colorado, Portland, San Francisco Bay Area, and Southern California), planning practices, and development scenarios.

Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies, 2004
Cervero, Murphy, Ferrell, Goguts, Tsai, Arrington, Boroski, Smith-Heimer, Golem, Peninger, Nakajima, Chui, Dunphy, Myers, McKay, and Witenstein.
Number of pages: 534

TOD 101: Why TOD? Why Now?
This presentation provided by CTOD for the City of Fort Worth TOD workshop contains basic principles of TOD and its benefits. The presentation provides various TOD typologies by development scale, land use mix, and connectivity.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), November 2006
Poticha, Shelley.
Number of pages: 28

TOD 202: Station Area Planning: How to Make Great Transit-Oriented Places
This manual is intended to help simplify the complex decisions that surround planning for TOD projects and station areas by providing details about the scales of development likely to occur in different places, as well as station area planning principles and TOD plan checklists.

Reconnecting America and the Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), February 2008
Number of pages: 28

TOD 203: Transit Corridors and TOD – Connecting the Dots
This Transit Corridors and TOD Planning Manual is intended to illustrate the role of corridor scale in successful TOD planning. This manual identifies three main types of corridors and their impact on the TOD potential. The second half of the manual focuses on the six major objectives of transit and TOD planning at the corridor scale. Each objective is linked to strategies, and successful corridor planning is illustrated through case studies.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), October 2010
Number of pages: 28

TOD 204: Planning for TOD at the Regional Scale
This booklet provides tools for regional stakeholders to help determine TOD planning that fits the political context, goals, and characteristics of a region. It describes ways to determine the right stakeholders to involve in the TOD planning, and what actions should be considered to create a regional market for TOD, as well as when and where regional plans and investments may lead to best return on the investments.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), 2007
Zimbabwe and Anderson.
Number of pages: 28

TOD Toolkit: Station Area Planning
This presentation outlines the station area planning process through examples of station areas, sample implementation tasks, and tools to implement strategies.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD) and Reconnecting America
Number of pages: 14 

Transit Friendly Design Guide
FWTAransit Friendly Design Guide for Calgary, Alberta, Canada was developed based on the Calgary Transportation Plan and the Sustainable Suburbs Study. The Guide was developed using the input from community stakeholders to describe how community design and transit service can be mutually supportive. The goal of the principles and policies contained in this guide is to create an environment that will help make Calgary Transit’s vision a reality.

Calgary Transit, April 2006
Number of pages: 58

Transit-Oriented Development Tools for Metropolitan Planning Organizations
This report provides information for Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in planning for a regional TOD strategy. It contains basic principles of MPO’s role in TOD planning. It contains case studies on region-wide planning, corridor planning, and TOD information exchanges. It also provides a tool matrix which describes planning, funding, capacity-building tools, and examples.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), February 2010
Number of pages: 33

 

Housing


Linking Housing and Transit Policy to Support Livable Communities

This document provides the Congressional Testimony of Shelley Poticha, a former President of Reconnecting America and the Center for Transit-Oriented Development. According to Poticha, the purpose of the testimony “is to discuss the need for stronger connections between housing and transportation policy and suggest a variety of actions to unlock what we believe to be a strong market for productive, sustainable and inclusive growth."

Reconnecting America, March 2009
Poticha, Shelley.
Number of pages: 12

Location Efficiency and Housing Type - Boiling it Down to British Thermal Units (BTU)
This paper describes the relationship between household energy consumption and housing types. Residential development patterns are categorized by location and type. Developments in a walkable neighborhood near transit are considered “location-efficient” because of their impact on reducing transportation costs. The study found that compared to housing types in conventional, largely automobile-dependent communities, household energy consumption decreases significantly in housing types that are smaller and are located in compact, transit-oriented developments.

Jonathan Rose Companies, January 2011
Hernandez, Lister, and Suarez.
Number of pages: 17

Making the Connection: TOD and Jobs
TOD is growing in popularity, but most of the focus of such projects is on environmental benefits and innovative design. This report analyzes the ways TOD can serve the needs of working families—particularly those with low and moderate incomes—by providing affordable housing and/or better access to jobs. This report examines 25 TOD projects around the country that to varying degrees meet the housing and employment needs of those with limited means.

Good Jobs First, March 2006
Grady, and LeRoy.
Number of pages: 116

Preserving and Promoting Diverse Transit-Oriented Neighborhoods
The report provides analysis on the characteristics of Transit Zones. Transit zones support more race and income diversity than average neighborhoods. Neighborhoods near transit provide housing to a greater share of a region's lower-income households than the region overall.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), October 2006
Number of pages: 76

TOD 201: Mixed-Income Housing near Transit
This book identified that changing demographics and concern about traffic has boosted demand for housing near transit and the supply is not keeping up with the increased demand. The first half of this book makes the case for the importance of locating mixed-income housing near transit in order to increase affordability, and explains why the increased demand for housing in walkable neighborhoods near transit is making this so difficult. The second half discusses some of the strategies that are proving successful in addressing this problem and ensuring that housing near transit is affordable for all Americans.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), September 2006
Number of pages: 28

Tools for Mixed-Income TOD
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and disseminate examples of tools and strategies to create mixed-income and affordable housing near transit around the country. This report provides recommendations to encourage more communities, regional agencies, the State and federal government, and developers to adopt and improve upon the successful strategies, and to spur ideas for other tools that do not yet exist.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), August 2006
Number of pages: 22

 

Accessibility


Characteristics of Rail and Ferry Station Area Residents in the San Francisco Bay Area: Evidence from the 2000 Bay Area Travel Survey, GIS Analysis Procedures, Appendix G

This research provides an analytical method using geographic information systems (GIS) method that has recently gained a lot of attention in the modeling and research communities that involves the development of network-based polygons that are constructed from the actual pedestrian network for an area, as opposed to the “as-the-crow-flies” method that defines the circular polygons. Because of this characteristic, the network-based approach can be used to provide a better understanding of the overall pedestrian accessibility of an area.

Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), September 2006
Number of pages: 17

TCRP Report 153: Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations
This report addresses planning and design for access to high capacity transit stations, including guidelines for arranging and integrating various station design elements. The report provides a process and spreadsheet-based tool for effectively planning for access to high capacity transit stations, including commuter rail, heavy rail, light rail, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), and ferry. The potential effectiveness of TOD opportunities to increase transit ridership is also assessed in the report.

Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies, 2012
Coffel, Parks, Semler, Ryus, Sampson, Kachadoorian, Levinson, and Schofer.
Number of pages: 146

TCRP Report 153: Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations, Webinar 1: Planning Process, Case Studies and Design Guidelines
These webinar materials highlight research from TCRP Report 153. Specific topics addressed include station access planning tools and processes, insights from case studies, general station access guidelines, and access guidelines by mode.

Transportation Research Board (TRB), November 2012
Coffel, Kathryn. Kathryn Coffel Consulting, LLC.
Number of pages: 32

TCRP Report 153: Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations, Webinar 2: Planning Process, Case Studies and Design Guidelines
These webinar materials highlight research from TCRP Report 153. Specific topics addressed include station typology and access modes, travel demand considerations, station access planning tool, and station access mode data.

Transportation Research Board (TRB), November 2012
Parks, Jamie. Kittleson & Associates, Inc.
Number of pages: 44

Using GIS for Measuring Transit Stop Accessibility Considering Actual Pedestrian Road Network
Knowing that every bus transit trip begins and ends with pedestrian travel, access to a bus stop is considered a critical factor for assessing the accessibility of the stop location. In this research, transit stop access coverage is estimated based on the actual pedestrian road network surrounding the stop. Accordingly, new indices are developed to assess a bus stop location on a more spatial basis. These indices measure the accessibility of a bus stop through the surrounding road network in addition to the ratio of actual access coverage to the ideal access coverage of a stop.  These concepts can also be applied to measuring accessibility to rail transit stations as well.

Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2010
Foda and Osman. 
Number of pages: 18

 

Economic Development


Balancing Development Needs and Transit Station Design: Three Case Studies in Dallas

This presentation material features case studies of Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) station areas: Cotton Belt UTD, Carrollton, and Mockingbird. This also contains concepts, master plans, and lessons learned from the case studies.

Jacobs, 2009
Zreet, Allan.
Number of pages: 41

Case Studies for Transit Oriented Development
This document is a short summary of the TOD tools used by communities across the country. Ten tools have been selected by the Center for Transit-Oriented Development and Reconnecting America to represent the best and most relevant ideas for the Phoenix metropolitan area in promoting TOD and ensuring that the investments made over the last decade will spur additional development and support for this growing transit system.

Reconnecting America, March 2009
Number of pages: 23

Core Values: Why American Companies are Moving Downtown

This report examines the characteristics, motives, and preferences of companies that have either relocated, opened new offices, or expanded in walkable downtowns between 2010 and 2015. Smart Growth America partnered with global real estate advisors Cushman & Wakefield to identify nearly 500 companies that have made such a move in the past five years. Of those, we interviewed representatives from more than 40 companies to gain a better understanding of this emerging trend.

Smart Growth America, 2016

Number of Pages: 44

DART TOD Guidelines
The Guidelines were designed as an informational handbook to assist the general public and the development community in understanding DART’s approach to TOD and transit facility design. The document is intended to help developers succeed in their TOD projects. It features case studies for Mockingbird Station and Downtown Plano Station.

Dallas Area Rapid Transit, August 2008
Number of pages: 60

Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Dallas Area Rapid Transit Light Rail System Buildout and System Operations
The following report provides analysis of the economic and fiscal impacts associated with the buildout of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) Light Rail System. The analysis also includes an assessment of the impact of the transit agency’s operations spending for specified fiscal years.

Center for Economic Development and Research. University of North Texas, June 2009
Clower and Weinstein.
Number of pages: 11

TOD Tax Increment Financing District Project Plan & Reinvestment Zone Financing Plan
FWTAOD Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District represents an effort of the City of Dallas to provide a model for encouraging the development of dense, pedestrian-friendly TODs adjacent to several stations located in the central part of Dallas. This document contains descriptions of TIF districts, planned improvements, and Financial Plan.

Office of Economic Development, City of Dallas, April 2010
Number of pages: 97

Regional Economic Analysis & Market Study
This presentation includes information and the findings of the TOD Economic & Market Study conducted best practices in the Denver Region.

Basile Baumann Prost Cole & Associates, Inc., January 2007
Prost, Jim.
Number of pages: 27

The Future of Mixed-Use Development
This issue of the Quarterly focuses on the many elements involved in the integration of transit into mixed-use developments, and how those transit-oriented and/or mixed-use developments may shape the future of communities.  Specific articles focus on integrating the right mix of retail at TODs and using independent financial market analysis to establish viable, market-driven TODs.

Jacobs Quarterly, Vol. 15 No. 3, 2008
Number of pages: 20 

 

Infrastructure and Parking


Parking Policy for Transit-Oriented Development: Lessons for Cities, Transit Agencies, and Developers

This article is based on the study of residential TODs, office TODs, and joint development of transit agency station parking in California. The research includes surveys of travel behavior, station area characteristics, parking supply, interviews with real estate developers, and studies of replacement parking issues at joint development sites. Research results show that TOD parking supply and pricing policy seldom are structured to support transit ridership goals. Policy recommendations for improving parking policy for TODs are offered to transit agencies, cities, and developers.

Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2005
Wilson, Richard. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.
Number of pages: 16

Parking Spaces / Community Places: Finding the Balance through Smart Growth Solutions
In cities and counties across the country, inflexible minimum parking requirements are the norm -- but they represent a barrier to better development, including redevelopment of vacant city land and contaminated sites. The policies described in this report can help communities explore new, flexible parking policies that can encourage growth and balance their parking needs with their other goals.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), January 2006
Number of pages: 70

So We Have a TOD Plan, Now What?: TOD Infrastructure Finance and Plan Implementation
This presentation by Dena Belzer from Strategic Economics presents the findings from a report commissioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2013 titled Infrastructure Financing Options for Transit Oriented Development. The presentation summarizes many of the challenges related to financing TOD-related infrastructure improvements and outlines some key strategies for implementing infrastructure projects and building value for transit-oriented developments.

Strategic Economics, 2013
Belzer, Dena.
Number of pages: 17

Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study – Parking and TOD: Challenges and Opportunities (Special Report)
This special report is intended to provide information to local jurisdictions, transit agencies, developers, financial institutions, and others as they develop and implement parking standards and programs for transit-oriented developments in California. It provides an overview of available information regarding the extent to which parking for various types of land uses may be reduced in the vicinity of major transit stations. It is one of a series of reports produced for the California Department of Transportation, Division of Mass Transportation’s Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study. The research summarized in this special report indicates that TOD can potentially reduce parking per household by approximately 20%, compared to non transit-oriented land uses. A wide range of parking reductions (from 12% to 60%) has also been found for commercial parking in TODs.

Business, Transportation and Housing Agency, California Department of Transportation, February 2002
Boroski, Faulkner, Arrington, Mori, Parker and Mayer.
Number of pages: 61

 

Transit


Bus Transit Oriented Development
Strengths and Challenges Relative to Rail

The article describes the general concept of TOD and how this relates to features of transit modes, outlines the literature relevant to bus-based TOD, and identifies the strengths and challenges of bus-based transit systems in relation to TOD. The article summarizes the relative strengths and challenges of BRT and local bus services compared to rail.

Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2006
Graham Currie.
Number of pages: 106 

Characteristics of Rail and Ferry Station Area Residents in the San Francisco Bay Area: Evidence from the 2000 Bay Area Travel Survey Vol. 1
This study was undertaken to characterize the demographic and travel characteristics of station area residents – individuals living within close proximity to rail stops and/or ferry terminals in the region. The study finds residents living close to rail and ferry station areas are more likely to choose alternative modes of travel including walking and biking.

Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), September 2006
Number of pages: 151 

Incorporating Land Use into Transit Benefits Assessments
This presentation contains information about how to incorporate land use into Transit Benefits Assessments. It examines transportation, urban form, and climate changes and suggests alternatives to the conventional traffic models, which are best at forecasting long-distance auto travel on freeways. Variables in the study include diversity, design, destinations, and distance from transit, which can also have an influence on reducing VMT and climate changes.

Fehr & Peers, December 12, 2007
Walters, Jerry.
Number of pages: 63

Impacts of Transit-Oriented Development on Public Transportation Ridership
The purpose of this study was to develop a research design to establish the relationship between TOD and travel mode share. The study concluded that good quality transit service is necessary to shift mode share, and good quality TOD is likely helpful but not sufficient. Other factors include supporting elements of the larger urban spatial structure, disincentives to driving alone, favorable marketability of TOD for non-transportation reasons, and incentives to use transit.

National Center for Transit Research at Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida, August 2005
Hendricks, Sara J.
Number of pages: 96

Light Rail and the American City: State-of-the-practice for Transit-Oriented Development
This document is a compilation of four different reports concerning Light Rail Transit (LRT) and TOD. The first report contains findings from examining existing LRT and TOD, focusing on the integration of land use in TOD planning. The other three reports focus on a specific LRT system in specific areas, such as the Hudson-Bergen LRT system in Jersey City, New Jersey, the Third Street LRT in San Francisco, and the Light Rail Corridor in Baltimore.

Transportation Research Circular E-C058: 9th National Light Rail Transit Conference, January 2004
Arrington, G.B.
Number of pages: 62

Midsize Cities on the Move
This report provides insight into planning transit system in midsize cities, whose population varies from 50,000 to 250,000. The report includes information on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, street cars, and recommendations for midsize cities planning for a transit system which responds to the need of their community.

Reconnecting America, December 2012
Kline and Forbes.
Number of pages: 52 

TCRP Report 95: Chapter 17 – Transit-Oriented Development -- Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
The report provides land use strategies for the TODs and their transportation impacts in terms of regional context, land use mix, and primary transit mode. The objective of the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook is to equip members of the transportation profession with a comprehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from (1) different types of transportation system changes and policy actions and (2) alternative land use and site development design approaches.

Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies, 2007
Evans, Pratt, Stryker and Kuzmyak.
Number of pages: 147

TCRP Synthesis 88: Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains
The synthesis includes a discussion of bus and train designs to accommodate various large items. The synthesis includes design accommodations for wheelchairs; Segways, scooters, and other mobility aids; strollers; bicycles; luggage; and miscellaneous large items such as skis and dog carriers.

Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies, 2011
Goldman and Murray.
Number of pages: 174

TOD 202: Transit + Employment – Increasing Transit’s Share of the Commute Trip
This book discusses commute trips and their impact on communities, and strategies that can be used to increase transit’s share of commute trips. The book discusses land-use transportation strategies to improve connectivity, match density with service, transit connecting to jobs, reinvestment in suburban job centers, and employment along mixed-use corridors.

Reconnecting America and the Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), June 2008
Number of pages: 24

Transportation for a New Era: Growing More Sustainable Communities
The report provides recommendations for the next surface transportation bill to help the country pivot to a new era and build more sustainable communities. The Urban Land Institute, through its National Transportation Policy Dialogue, brought together leading real estate and transportation thinkers and practitioners to consider the links among real estate, development, and transportation. Recommendations focus on smarter and more sophisticated technologies, growing support for rail and transit, and better infrastructure investment decisions to achieve better outcomes.

Urban Land Institute (ULI), July 2009
Murphy, Dunphy, MacCleery, Brandes, Peterson and Jawaid.
Number of pages: 20 

Transportation, Social and Economic Impacts of Light and Commuter Rail in Metropolitan Areas
The paper focuses on rider impacts so that environmental justice issues do not emerge due to expansion of rail systems. The economic impacts are strongest in station areas, as access to rail increases property value on nearby property. The positive impact of rail on property values may not hold true for property directly adjacent to the rail line. The paper analyzes the demographic changes in the context of availability of transportation options, travel rate, and mode use.

Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), FWTAexas A&M University System, September 2009
Arndt, Morgan, Overman, Clower, Weinstein, and Seman.
Number of pages: 140 

Travel Demand in the Context of Growing Diversity
The report analyzes the differences in travel behavior and possible explanations that can help in modeling travel demand. The report examines demographic characteristics like population growth age distribution, household size, and race and ethnicity and their impact on vehicle ownership and travel patterns.   

TR News, Transportation Research Board (TRB), Sep-Oct 2009
Contrino and McGuckin.
Number of pages: 6

 

Financing and Funding


Appendix B:
Joint Development Projects

This appendix of the Joint Development Policy from the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) contains guidelines for undertaking joint development projects with coordinated investments in TODs and transit. The document contains a set of questions most frequently asked about the concept of joint development and provides responses to those questions with examples.

Federal Transit Administration (FTA), March 1997
Number of pages: 11   

Capturing the Value of Transit
The report describes value capture strategies, focusing specifically on the potential to capture increased property values for the purpose of funding transit. The document describes value capture opportunities for existing property owners and future development opportunities.

Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), November 2008
Forgarty, Eaton, Belzer, and Ohland.
Number of pages: 38

Filling the Financing Gap for Equitable Transit-Oriented Development
The report provides case studies from Atlanta, Denver, the San Francisco Bay Area and the Twin Cities in creating mixed-use and affordable and equitable TODs. The document focuses on a particular approach to TOD that has been gaining greater attention: equitable TOD.

The Living Cities, March 2013
Pollack and Prater.
Number of pages: 66 

Financing Transit-Oriented Development in the San Francisco Bay Area
The report focuses on policy options and strategies for financing TOD in San Francisco Bay Area. The report provides description of barriers to TOD funding, case studies of TOD financing programs, and recommendations to expand TOD program in San Francisco Bay Area.

Reconnecting America and the Center for Transit-Oriented Development (CTOD), August 2008
Number of pages: 36

 

Financing Transit Systems through Value Capture
This paper summarizes the findings of nearly 100 studies concerning the impacts of transit service on nearby property values, and the feasibility of capturing this additional value to finance transit improvements. The results indicate that proximity to transit often increases property values enough to offset some or all of transit system capital costs.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute, February 2006
Smith and Gihring.
Number of pages: 31

Forum on Innovative Financing
The report provides a series Value Capture Case Studies that highlight ways in which cities and regions across the country are using value capture mechanisms to fund transportation plans. These case studies present learnings for the Chicago region as it grapples with investment decisions for transportation improvements.

Metropolitan Planning Council (MPC), April 2012
Number of pages: 42 

Infrastructure Financing Option for Transit-Oriented Development
This report on funding and financing for TOD infrastructure was produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Sustainable Communities by working with four communities, Cobb County and the Cumberland Community Improvement District, Georgia; South Suburban Mayors and Managers Association, Illinois; Utah Transit Authority, Salt Lake City and Sandy City, Utah; and the City of Wheat Ridge, Colorado. The sites identified for TOD in each of the communities had different assets and challenges. However, the issues they were confronting had many commonalities that suggested a single project could help meet their needs and the needs of many communities across the country that are considering options for funding and financing infrastructure to support TOD.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), January 2013
Number of pages: 251 

Value Capture: How to Get a Return on the Investment in Transit and TOD
The document provides tools and case studies of value capture in TOD. The report includes successful strategies used by various communities for value capture and some useful tools for infrastructure development in TODs.

Reconnecting America, June 2005
Ohland, Gloria.
Number of pages: 7 

 

Other Implementation Tools


Smart Growth and Transit-Oriented Development at the State Level: Lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia

The States of California, New Jersey, and Western Australia encourage smart growth through the employment of TOD. This article documents each state’s approach and highlights the importance of interagency cooperation at the state level and intergovernmental cooperation between state and local governments. This article discusses the importance of state government participation in the planning and creation of policy to facilitate TOD, and recommends elements for a model state TOD program.

Journal of Public Transportation, 2008
Renne, John L.
Number of pages: 32 

TCRP Report 128: Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel
This report focuses on the effects of TOD on housing, parking and travel including literature reviews and research findings. It addresses the following questions: (1) What are the demographic profiles of TOD residents and employers; (2) What motivates residents or employers to locate in TODs; (3) What are the travel characteristics (e.g., frequency of travel by different modes) of people who live or work in a TOD; (4) What was the travel pattern of the TOD resident prior to moving to the TOD; (5) What levels of transit connectivity to desired origins and destinations are required to promote transit ridership at TODs; (6) What motivates or impedes transit ridership in a TOD; (7) Which strategies have been effective in increasing transit ridership at TODs; (8) What steps should transit agencies take in supporting TODs to maximize transit ridership; and (9) What TOD land-use and design features (e.g., mixed land-use, traffic calming, bus bulbs, short blocks, street furniture) have had an effect on travel patterns, transit ridership, or the decision to locate in a TOD?

Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies, 2008
Arrington and Cervero.
Number of pages: 67

Transit-Oriented Development Policy
This document includes the TOD policy goals, Land Use Strategies, Process Strategies and Financial Strategies, adopted by the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) on July 14, 2005.

San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), July 2005
Number of pages: 2  

 

Click to download a PDF copy of the TOD Resources document.

If you are aware of other resources that should be included, please contact Travis Liska.

 

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